The Diet Denominator: Fill Your Tank for Less

A practical guide to choosing low energy density foods


The Diet Denominator

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What People are Saying

Free Online Diet Tool

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Diet Denominator Scale

Clinical Facts

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Everyday and fast foods

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Clinical Facts

What Clinical Researchers are Saying about Energy Density Diets


Since people tend to eat a consistent weight of food, when the Energy Density of the available foods is reduced, energy intake is reduced.† Rolls BJ. The relationship between dietary energy density and energy intake. Physiol Behav. 2009 Jul 14;97(5):609-15. Epub 2009 Mar 20.


Reducing dietary energy density, particularly by combining increased fruit and vegetable intakes with decreased fat intake, is an effective strategy for managing body weight while controlling hunger.† Ello-Martin JA et al. Dietary energy density in the treatment of obesity: a year-long trial comparing 2 weight-loss diets. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007. 85(6):1465-77.


Both large and modest Energy Density reductions were associated with weight loss and improved diet quality. Ledikwe JH et al. Reductions in dietary energy density are associated with weight loss in overweight and obese participants in the PREMIER trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 May;85(5):1212-21.


Children's energy intake is influenced by the Energy Density of foods and beverages served over multiple days. These results strengthen the evidence that reducing the Energy Density of the diet is an effective strategy for moderating children's energy intake. Leahy KE et al. Reducing the energy density of multiple meals decreases the energy intake of preschool-age children. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Dec;88(6):1459-68.


To achieve a low-energy-density diet, individuals should be encouraged to eat a variety of fruits and vegetables as well as low-fat/reduced-fat, nutrient-dense, and/or water-rich grains, dairy products, and meats/meat alternatives. Ledikwe JH et al. Low-energy-density diets are associated with high diet quality in adults in the United States. J Am Diet Assoc. 2006. 106(8):1172-80.

Try the free online energy density calculator here:


All you need is the Nutrition Facts panel on your food item. Take a look at the sample chart below. See book for details.

Still not a believer?

Read about energy density diets at the Mayo Clinic here:

More magazine articles appearing in Muscle and Fitness
written by Frank G. Bottone, Jr., PhD on Energy Density.

Long before it was popularized!

Be Water Wise (below left)

High Protein Diet and Hunger (below right)
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The Diet Denominator is available for purchase at leading online book retailers such as:†

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Articles written by Frank G. Bottone, Jr., PhD appearing in
Muscle and Fitness (below left) and Menís Fitness (below right).

Another article in the American Dietetic Associationís (ADAís) Weight Management Newsletter